Knowledge Bank

MENSTRUATION & MENSTRUAL CYCLE



What is menstruation?

Menstruation is a natural bodily function for the reproductive health of women and adolescent girls.It results in bleeding from the womb (uterus) being lost through the vagina. Menstruation is normal and healthy for girls.

Hedhi ni nini?

Hedhi ni mfumo wa kawaida wa mwili katika afya ya uzazi kwa wanawake na wasichana.Hedhi hupelekea kutokwa  na damu kutoka kwenye mfuko wa uzazi (uterasi) kwa kupitia uke. Hedhi ni hali ya kawaida na ya kiafya kwa wasichana na wanawake.


Is menstruation normal?

Yes! Menstruation is a natural process linked to the reproductive cycle of women and girls. It is a sign of good health and growing up. It is not a sickness.

Je, hedhi ni kitu cha kawaida?

Ndio, hedhi ni hali ya kawaida inayohusiana na mzunguko wa uzazi wa wanawake na wasichana. Ni alama ya afya nzuri na ukuaji. Sio ugonjwa.


How long is a menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is usually around 28 days but can vary from 21 to 35 days.

Mzunguko wa hedhi huchukua muda gani?

Kwa kawaida mzunguko wa hedhi huwa ni siku 28, lakini huweza kutofautiana na mara nyingi huwa kati ya siku 21 mpaka siku 35.


What is a menstrual cycle?

Each month, a girl’s menstrual cycle begins with menstruation, which typically lasts between 2 and 7 days, with some lighter flow and some heavier flow days. Following menstruation, tissue and blood start to line the walls of the uterus to prepare the uterus for receiving a fertilised egg. Around day 14 of each cycle an egg is released from one of the ovaries (ovulation) and moves into the uterus through the fallopian tubes. If the egg is not fertilised, the lining of the uterus then detaches and is

shed through the vagina along with blood. The cycle is often irregular for the first year or two after menstruation begins.

Mzunguko wa hedhi ni nini?

Kila mwezi, mzunguko wa msichana huanza na hedhi, ambayo kawaida huchukua kati ya siku 2 mpaka 7, pamoja na siku za mtiririko mwepesi na siku za mtiririko mzito. Kufuatia hedhi, tishu na damu huanza kuzunguka kuta za uzazi kuandaa uzazi kwa kupokea yai lililorutubishwa. Karibu siku 14 ya kila mzunguko yai hutolewa kutoka kwenye ovari (ovulation) na huingia ndani ya uzazi kwa njia ya mirija ya falopia (mirija ya mayai). Endapo yai halitorutubishwa, kuta za uzazi huachia na kutoka pamoja na damu kupitia uke. Mzunguko mara nyingi hubadilika badilika ndani ya  mwaka mmoja au miwili baada ya hedhi kuanza.


What age do girls menstruate? When does menstruation start and end?

Girls typically start to menstruate during puberty or adolescence, usually between the ages of ten and 19. At this time, they experience physical changes (eg growing breasts, wider hips and body hair) and emotional changes due to hormones. Menstruation continues until they reach menopause, when menstruation ends, usually between their late 40s and 50s.

Ni umri gani wasichana huanza kupata hedhi? Hedhi huanza na kuisha lini?

Wasichana mara nyingi huanza kupata hedhi katika kipindi cha kubalehe na ujana, mara nyingi kati ya miaka 10 mpaka 19.katika kipindi hiki hupitia mabadiliko ya kimwili ( mfano kukua kwa matiti, kutanuka kwa hips na kukua kwa nywele sehemu za siri) pamoja na mabadiliko ya kihisia kutokana na homoni walizonazo. Hedhi huendelea mpaka wanapofikia menopause ambapo hedhi hufikia mwisho, mara nyingi kati ya miaka 40 mpaka 50.


How long does menstruation last?

Menstruation usually occurs monthly for two to seven days.

Hedhi hudumu kwa muda gani?

Hedhi mara nyingi hutokea kila mwezi ndani ya siku 2 mpaka 7.


Can someone tell if I have my period?

No, not unless you tell the person! But when you have your period, tell your mother, sister or another adult you can trust. That way there will be somebody to answer any questions you have.

Je, mtu anaweza kugundua nikiwa katika siku zangu?

Hapana, labda umwambie! Unapokuwa katika siku zako, mwambie mama yako, dada au mtu mzima yeyote ambaye unamuamini. Kwa njia hiyo kutakuwa na mtu wa kukusaidia endapo utakuwa na swali lolote.


Why do girls menstruate?

Menstruation is natural bodily function for the reproductive health of women and adolescent girls. Each month, a girl’s menstrual cycle begins with menstruation, which typically lasts between 2 and 7 days, with some lighter flow and some heavier flow days. Following menstruation, tissue and blood start to line the walls of the uterus to prepare the uterus for receiving a fertilised egg. Around day 14 of each cycle an egg is released from one of the ovaries (ovulation) and moves into the uterus through the fallopian tubes. If the egg is not fertilised, the lining of the uterus then detaches and is shed through the vagina along with blood. The cycle is often irregular for the first year or two after

menstruation begins.

Kwanini wasichana wanatokwa na hedhi?

Hedhi ni mfumo wa kawaida wa mwili katika afya ya uzazi kwa wanawake na wasichana.Kila mwezi, mzunguko wa msichana huanza na hedhi, ambayo kawaida huchukua kati ya siku 2 mpaka 7, pamoja na siku za mtiririko mwepesi na siku za mtiririko mzito. Kufuatia hedhi, tishu na damu huanza kuzunguka kuta za uzazi kuandaa uzazi kwa kupokea yai lililorutubishwa. Karibu siku 14 ya kila mzunguko yai hutolewa kutoka kwenye ovari (ovulation) na huingia ndani ya uzazi kwa njia ya mirija ya falopia (mirija ya mayai). Endapo yai halitorutubishwa, kuta za uzazi huachia na kutoka pamoja na damu kupitia uke. Mzunguko mara nyingi hubadilika badilika ndani ya  mwaka mmoja au miwili baada ya hedhi kuanza.



How much blood do girls lose during their period?

The average amount of blood lost during a menstrual period is about two tablespoons (30-40 ml). Women and girls generally experience some lighter flow and some heavier flow days during their menstrual period.

Wasichana hupoteza damu kiasi gani wakati wa hedhi?

Kwa wastani vijiko viwili vya damu hupotea wakati wa hedhi. Wanawake na wasichana huwa na  siku za mtiririko mwepesi na mtiririko mzito wakati wa hedhi.


What is menstrual blood made of?

Menstrual ‘blood’ is made up of various bodily fluids; about half of menstrual fluid is blood. In addition to blood, the fluid consists of the uterine lining as well as cervical mucus and vaginal secretions.

Damu inayotoka wakati wa hedhi imetengenezwa na nini?

Damu ya hedhi imetengenezwa kwa maji maji mbalimbali ya mwili; takribani nusu ya maji maji ya hedhi ni damu. Pia maji maji haya huwa na kuta za uterasi pamoja na kamasi zitokanazo na uzaz na maji maji ya uke.


What is menstrual hygiene management? How can I stay clean and safe during menstruation?

When girls begin to menstruate, they need to take a few steps to deal with their menstrual flow and to maintain general hygiene. Here are some tips for managing your hygiene and health during your period:

  • Bathe every day (morning and evening if possible) wash your genitals with soap and water.

  • Remember that your vagina has its own self-cleaning mechanism and an external cleaning agent like deodorant or soap should not be used inside it!

  • Wear clean undergarments and change them regularly.

  • Change your pad, cloth, tampon, or cup as and when required, at least every 4 to 6 hrs.

  • Eating a balanced diet to provide the body essential nutrients.

  • Maintaining an active lifestyle while avoiding stress and tension.

Nini maana ya usimamizi wa usafi wa hedhi? Ni namna gani naweza kubaki safi na salama wakati wa hedhi?

Wakati wasichana wanaanza kupata hedhi, wanahitaji kuchukua hatua chache kushughulikia mtiririko wa hedhi na kudumisha usafi kwa ujumla. Hivi ni  vidokezo vya kusimamia usafi na afya yako wakati wa siku zako:

  • Oga kila siku( asubuhi na jioni kama inawezekana) safisha sehemu zako za siri kwa maji na sabuni.

  • Kumbuka ya kwamba, uke wako unao utaratibu wa kusafisha na vifaa vya kusafisha mwili kwa nje kama sabuni havipaswi kutumika kusafishia uke.

  • Vaa mavazi safi ya ndani na kumbuka kubadili mara kwa mara

  • Badilisha pedi yako, kitambaa au kikombe cha hedhi kila inapohitajika, angalau ndani ya masaa 4-6

  • Kula chakula bora ili kuupatia mwili virutubisho vya kutosha

  • Jihusishe na shughuli mbalimbali na kuepuka msongo wa mawazo


Should I bathe when I have my period?

Yes! Bathe every day (morning and evening if possible) wash your genitals with soap and water. Keep unused cloths and pads clean (wrapped in tissue or plastic bag) for further use. Pat the area dry with a cloth, and put a fresh cloth, pad, cotton or tissue on your underwear. Always wipe from front to back after defecation. Never douche (washing out the vagina with water) as this could make you more likely to get a pelvic infection.

Je, nioge wakati niko katika siku zangu?

Ndio, Oga kila siku ( asubuhi na jioni kama inawezekana) Osha sehemu zako za siri kwa sabuni na maji. Weka vitambaa ambavyo havijatumika na pedi katika hali ya usafi kwa matumizi ya baadae. Weka uke wako safi na kavu na vaa kitambaa safi, pedi, pamba au tissue katika chupi yako kisha vaa. Jisafishe kutokea mbele kwenda nyuma baada ya kujisaidia.


They say you should not take bath during periods, is it true?

False! Taking a bath/shower/washing the body during menstruation is necessary. It prevents a woman from getting infections. However, the practice of ‘douching’ (forcing water inside the vagina in order to clean it) can make pelvic infections more likely.

Wanasema usioge wakati wa siku zako, je! ni kweli?

Sio kweli, kuoga wakati wa hedhi ni lazima. Inamuepusha msichana/mwanamke na maambukizi, ingawa kitendo cha kulazimisha maji ndani ya uke kwa lengo la kuusafisha inaweza kusababisha urahisi wa kupata maambukizi katika via vya uzazi vya mwanamke.


Should [menstruating] women wash inside of their vaginas?

No! Women should never wash inside of their vagina with soap or any other cleaning solutions. The vagina is a self-cleaning part of the body and using soap or douches to wash inside of it can be harmful to the natural balance of your vagina and make pelvic infections more likely. Instead, wash around the outside with soap and water.

Je wanawake waliopo katika siku zao wanapaswa kuosha uke wao kwa ndani?

Hapana, wanawake hawapaswi kuosha uke wao kwa ndani na sabuni au vifaa vyovyote vya kusafishia. Uke ni sehemu ya mwili ambayo hujisafisha yenyewe na kutumia sabuni au kulazimisha maji ndani ya uke kunaweza kukuweka kwenye hatari ya kupata maambukizi katika via vya uzazi. Badala yake, osha uke kwa nje kwa sabuni na maji.


How often should I change my pad?

Pads should be changed 4-6 times per day depending on your menstrual flow. If you bleed heavily, you will need to change your pad more often. It’s best to change your pad before it becomes completely saturated with menstrual blood so that you avoid irritations of the skin or rash from the moist pad rubbing against your skin

Napaswa kubadili pedi kila baada ya muda gani?

Pedi zinapaswa kubadilishwa kila baada ya masaa 4 mpaka 6 kwa siku kutegemea na wingi wa damu inayotoka. Kama damu nyingi inatoka itakubidi ubadilishe pedi mara kwa mara. Ni vema kubadili pedi yako kabla haijajaa damu kabisa ili kuepuka muwasho au vipele katika ngozi vinavyoweza kutokea endapo pedi iliyojaa damu inaposuguana na ngozi yako.


PAIN


Does it hurt to have my period?

Some girls feel no pain at all when they have their period, some have slight pains below their navaland in their lower back, and some have a lot of pain and may need to take pain relieving medicine. Usually, any pain is not bad and does not last long. Cramps are caused by the muscles of the uterus contracting. It is this contraction that pushes out the lining of the uterus each month.

Je, nitapata maumivu nikiwa katika siku zangu?

Baadhi ya wasichana hawapati maumivu kabisa wanapokuwa katika siku zao, baadhi wanakuwa na maumivu kidogo chini ya mgongo, na wengine huwa na maumivu makali na kuwa na uhitaji wa kutumia vidonge vya kupunguza maumivu. Kwa kawaida, kuwa na maumivu sio vibaya na hayachukui muda mrefu.Maumivu hutokana na mirija ya uterasi kusinyaa, kusinyaa huku ndiko hupelekea kuta za uzazi kutolewa nje pamoja na damu kwa njia ya hedhi kila mwezi.


Is it normal to have pain during menstruation?

Yes! Many women and girls to suffer from period pains such as abdominal cramps, nausea, fatigue, feeling faint, headaches, back ache and general discomfort. You may also experience emotional and psychological changes (eg heightened feelings of sadness, irritability or anger) due to changing hormones. This varies from person to person and can change significantly over time.

Je, ni kawaida kuwa na maumivu wakati wa hedhi?

Ndio! Wanawake wengi na wasichana usumbuliwa na maumivu wakati wa siku zao kama vile maumivu ya tumbo, kichefuchefu, uchovu,maumivu ya kichwa,kuumwa mgongo na kukosa uhuru.Unaweza pia kuwa na mabadiliko ya kihisia na kisaikolojia( mfano huzuni, kuwashwa, hasira) kutokana na kubadilika kwa homoni. Mabadiliko haya hutofautiana baina ya mtu na mtu na huweza kubadilika kadiri muda unavyozidi kupita.

What should I do about pain during menstruation?

Put a bottle with hot water on your stomach area when resting. Try to do some exercises and keep your body active.

You can take painkillers every four to six hours on most painful days. Seek advice from a doctor or pharmacist.

Nifanye nini kuhusiana na maumivu wakati wa hedhi?

Weka chupa yenye maji ya moto juu ya tumbo wakati umepumzika.Jaribu kufanya mazoezi.Unaweza kumeza dawa za kupunguza maumivu kila baada ya masaa 4 mpaka 6 siku ambazo maumivu ni makali zaidi.Tafuta ushauri wa daktari au mtaalamu wa madawa.


HEALTH, NUTRITION, AND SEX


My cycle is irregular, is it normal?

Yes! Especially when you are a teenager, you may have an irregular cycle. The menstrual cycle is usually around 28 days but can vary from 21 to 35 days.

Mzunguko wangu unabadilika badilika, je, ni hali ya kawaida?

Ndio! Haswa unapokuwa ni kijana unayebarehe, unaweza kuwa na mzunguko unaobadilika badilika. Mzunguko wa hedhi huwa ni takribani siku 28 lakini unaweza kutofautiana na kuwa kati ya siku 21 mpaka 35.


My menstrual flow is heavy, is it normal?

Having a heavy menstrual flow can be normal for some women. However, if your flow is very heavy and painful, we recommend that you talk to your doctor.

Natokwa na damu nyingi wakati wa hedhi, je, hii ni hali ya kawaida?

Kutokwa na damu nyingi wakati wa hedhi inaweza kuwa kawaida kwa baadhi ya wanawake. Ingawa, kama unatokwa damu nyingi ikiambatana na maumivu makali tunashauri uonane na daktari ili uweze kupata msaada.


My menstrual flow is light, is it normal?

Having a light menstrual flow can be normal for some women. However, if your flow is very light and or you frequently miss periods, we recommend that you talk to your doctor.

Natokwa na damu kidogo wakati wa hedhi, Je, hii ni hali ya kawaida?

Kutokwa na damu kidogo wakati wa hedhi kunaweza kuwa ni hali ya kawaida kwa baadhi ya wanawake. Ingawa kama unatokwa na damu kidogo na mara kwa mara unakosa siku zako, tunashauri ukaonane na daktari ili uweze kupata msaada na ushauri zaidi.


I have lots of clots/clumps in my menstrual flow, is it normal?

It is normal to have blood clots! Many women have clots in their menstrual blood from time to time. The clots may be bright red or dark in color. Often, these clots are shed on the heaviest days of bleeding. The presence of multiple clots in your flow may make your menstrual blood seem thick or denser than usual but it is nothing to be concerned about.

Nina mabonge mengi ya damu katika mzunguko wangu wa hedhi, je hii ni hali ya kawaida?

Ni kawaida kuwa na mabonge ya damu! Wanawake wengi wana mabonge ya damu katika hedhi zao. Mabonge yanaweza kuwa mekundu mpauko au yaliyokolea.Mara nyingi mabonge haya hutokea siku ambazo damu nzito hutoka. Uwepo wa mabonge mengi unaweza kuifanya damu yako kuonekana nzito kuliko kawaida na sio kitu cha kukutia mashaka.


The colour of my menstrual flow changes – sometimes it’s dark and other times it’s light, is it normal?

It’s normal to have the color of your period blood change! You may notice that your menstrual blood becomes dark brown or almost black both at the beginning and as you near the end of your period.

This is a normal color change. It happens when the blood is older and not being expelled from the body quickly. Blood at the beginning of your period is darker because it’s sometimes leftover blood from the previous period. Blood is usually lighter in the middle of your period because it’s being pushed out more quickly. The color of your blood might change a lot from one period to the next and within the same period.

Rangi ya hedhi yangu hubadilika, wakati mwingine imekolea sana na wakati mwingine ya kawaida tu, je, hii ni hali ya kawaida?

Ni kawaida kwa rangi ya hedhi yako kubadilika! Unaweza kugundua kuwa rangi ya damu ya hedhi yako inakuwa kama ya kawahia iliyokolea au inakaribia kuwa nyeusi mwanzoni na unapokaribia mwishoni mwa siku zako.

Huu ni mbadiliko wa rangi wa kawaida. Unatokea damu inapokuwa imekaa muda mrefu na haijatolewa nje ya mwili kwa haraka. Wakati unaingia period damu huwa inakuwa imekolea au inakaribia weusi kwa sababu wakati mwingine inakuwa ni mabaki ya damu ya hedhi iliyopita. Damu huwa imefifia rangi katikati ya hedhi kwa sababu inakuwa inatolewa nje kwa haraka zaidi. Rangi ya damu yako inaweza kubadilika kutoka mzunguko mmoja hadi mwingine na hata ndani ya mzunguko mmoja.


What does it mean if a girl misses her period one month?

If a girl who menstruates every month misses a period, and she has had sexual intercourse, it may mean she is pregnant. But girls can also miss periods if they are feeling stressed, if they become too thin or they have been travelling. It is also possible when girls’ bodies are developing that their period may not be regular at first and can skip months.


Msichana anapokosa siku zake kwa mwezi mmoja inamaana gani?

Kama msichana anaepata siku zake kila mwezi akikosa kuziona siku zake na alishiriki tendo la ndoa, inaweza kumaanisha amepata ujauzito. Lakini wasichana hukosa kuziona siku zao pia kama wana msongo wa mawazo, kama wakikonda sana au kama wamekuwa safarini. Inawezekana pia wakati miili ya wasichana inakua siku zao zinaweza zikawa zinabadilika badilika na kukosa hedhi baadhi ya miezi.


I have discharge / white stuff in my undies, is it normal?

Yes, every girl and woman may have vaginal fluid that varies throughout her cycle. The fluid may be thin and clear, thick and mucous-like, or long and stringy. A discharge that appears cloudy white, and/or yellowish when dry on clothing is normal. The discharge will usually change at different times in the menstrual cycle and for various other reasons, including emotional or sexual arousal, pregnancy and use of oral contraceptive pills.

The following can be a sign of abnormal discharge and could indicate a health problem:

  • Discharge accompanied by itching, rash or soreness.

  • Persistent increased discharge.

  • White, lumpy discharge (like curds).

  • Grey/white or yellow/green discharge with a bad smell.

You should talk to your doctor if you have any of these issues.

Natokwa vitu vyeupe katika nguo zangu za ndani, ni kawaida?

Ndiyo, kila msichana na mwanamke anaweza kuwa na maji ya uke ambayo yanatofautiana katika mzunguko wake. Maji yanaweza kuwa membaba na ya wazi, mazito na kama yanavutika, au marefu na kama yanavutika. Uchafu unaoonekana kuwa nyeupe, na / au njano yakiwa yamekauka katika nguo ya ndani  ni ya kawaida. Kutolewa kwa kawaida hubadilika kwa nyakati tofauti katika mzunguko wa hedhi na kwa sababu nyingine mbalimbali, ikiwa ni pamoja na kuchochea kihisia au ngono, ujauzito na matumizi ya dawa za uzazi.

Yafuatayo inaweza kuwa ishara ya kutokwa maji maji kusiko kwa kawaida na inaweza kuonyesha tatizo la afya:

  • Kutokwa maji maji kunakoambatana na kujikuna, vipele au maumivu.

  • Kutokwa ute kwa mfululizo

  • Kutokwa na fundo la ute mweupe

  • Ute wa kijivu/mweupe au njano/kijani ukiambana na harufu mbaya

Unapaswa kuwasiliana na daktari endapo una dalili yoyote kati ya hizi


I have (some health related problem) with my period. What should I do?

Unfortunately, we can’t give you medical advice since we are not physicians and are there to consult

with you! We recommend that you consult with a doctor about your symptoms.

Nina tatizo la kiafya kuhusiana na siku zangu, ninapaswa kufanya nini?

Kwa bahati mbaya, hatuwezi kukupatia ushauri wa kimatibabu kwa sababu sisi sio madaktari na madaktari wapo kwa ajili ya kukushauri na kukusaidia. Tunashauri umuone daktari na kumuelezea shida yako ili uweze kupata msaada wa kitaalamu zaidi.


Can I have sex during menstruation?

While you can have sex during your period and it is not harmful, some women may feel uncomfortable having sex during because there is blood present. You are free to make whatever choice is best for you depending on your physical, emotional, and mental state on that day.

Remember to always use a condom when you have sex to protect you from sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy. It’s unlikely, but you can still get pregnant if you have unprotected sex during your period if you ovulate early.

Je naweza kufanya ngono wakati wa hedhi?

Unaweza kufanya ngono ukiwa katika siku zako na haina madhara, baadhi ya wanawake hujisikia kutokuwa huru kufanya ngono wakati wakiwa katika siku zao kwa sababu ya damu inayokuwepo katika uke kwa kipindi hiki. Uko huru kufanya maamuzi yoyote unayojisikia kulingana na hali yako ya kimwili, kihisia na kiakili kwa siku hiyo.

Kumbuka kutumia kondomu kila mara unapofanya ngono ili kujilinda na magonjwa yanayoambukizwa kwa njia ya ngono pamoja na mimba zisizotarajiwa. Ni marachache sana hutokea, lakini unaweza kupata ujauzito kama utashiriki ngono isiyo salama wakati wa siku zako kama yai litarutubishwa mapema.

What should I eat when I have my period?

All types of food as you normally would eat. Menstruating girls need to eat foods that contain iron to replace iron losses during bleeding like red meat, red lentils, and green leafy vegetables. Also eating fresh fruit and foods high in calcium can help keep them healthy and alleviate some symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Napaswa kula nini nikiwa katika siku zangu?

Aina zote za vyakula ambazo unakula siku za kawaida. Wasichana waliopo katika siku zao wanahitaji kula vyakula ambavyo vina madini ya chuma kurudisha madini ya chuma yanayopotea wakat wakati wa hedhi kama vile nyama nyekundu, mboga za majani. Pia kula matunda na vyakula vyenye calcium vinaweza kusaidia kuwa na afya na kupunguza baadhi ya dalili kabla ya hedhi.


What food items should I NOT eat during menstruation?

You can eat all food during your period!

Vyakula vya aina gani sipaswi kula wakati nipo katika siku zangu?

Unaweza kula vyakula vya aina yoyote wakati wa siku zako!


Does eating cold food cause cramps?

Eating cold food will not give a menstruating woman cramps.

Je, kula vyakula vya baridi kunasababisha maumivu ya tumbo yanayosababishwa na hedhi?

Kula vyakula vya baridi hakumfanyi mwanamke aliyeko katika hedhi kupata maumivu ya tumbo.


Does eating certain foods cause the odour of my menstrual blood to change?

Eating food does not change the odour of your menstrual blood. You can eat anything you would like while you are on your period! Menstruating girls need to eat foods that contain iron to replace iron losses during bleeding like red meat, red lentils, and green vegetables. Also eating fresh fruit and foods high in calcium can help keep them healthy and alleviate some symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Je, kula vyakula vya aina fulani kunasababisha harufu ya damu ya hedhi kubadilika?

Kula chakula hakubadilishi harufu ya damu yako ya hedhi. Unaweza kula chochote unachopenda unapokuwa katika siku zako! Wasichana waliopo katika siku zao wanahitaji kula vyakula ambavyo vina madini ya chuma kurudisha madini ya chuma yanayopotea wakati wa hedhi kama vile nyama nyekundu, mboga za majani. Pia kula matunda na vyakula vyenye calcium vinaweza kusaidia kuwa na afya na kupunguza baadhi ya dalili kabla ya hedhi.


How are iron deficiency (anaemia) and menstruation related?

After a girl’s first period, girls may not eat enough iron in their diet to offset menstrual losses, resulting in iron deficiency, called anaemia. Feeling tired or dizzy could be symptoms of anaemia, though you should talk to your doctor about any health problems that you have. You can prevent anaemia by eating iron rich foods such as red meat, red lentils, and green leafy vegetables. Your doctor will be able to give you more information on diagnosing and treating anaemia.

Upungufu wa madini ya chuma(Anemia) na hedhi vina mahusiano gani?

Baada ya hedhi ya mara ya kwanza, wasichana wanaweza wasile vya kutosha kurudisha madini yaliyopotea wakati wa hedhi, hivyo kupelekea upungufu wa madini haya ambao kitaalamu huitwa Anemia. Kujisikia uchovu au kizunguzungu vinaweza kuwa dalili za anemia , ingawa unapaswa kuongea na daktari wako kuhusiana na tatizo la afya lolote unalokutana nalo.unaweza kuepuka Anemia kwa kula vyakula vyenye madini ya chuma kama vile nyama nyekundu, mbogamboga.Daktari wako atakupa taarifa zaidi juu ya upimaji na matibabu ya Anemia.


Should I exercise during menstruation? Should I participate in physical education (P.E.)/gym class during menstruation?

Yes. Exercise helps to regulate your blood flow and may help you to manage pain and cramping.

Napaswa kufanya mazoezi wakati wa hedhi?

Ndio.Mazoezi husaidia kurekebisha mzunguko wa damu yako na yanaweza pia kukusaidia kumudu maumivu mbalimbali kabla na wakati wa hedhi.


Can I go to school when I have my period?

Yes! Menstruating girls are free to participate in any normal activity. To be prepared at school, you might want to keep essential items like underwear, sanitary pads, and anything else you normally need to manage your period in your school bag. If you are unprepared for your period, ask a trusted friend or adult like a teacher for help.

Naweza kwenda shule nikiwa kwenye siku zangu?

Ndo, wasichana waliopo katika hedhi wako huru kushiriki katika shughuli za kawaida za kila siku. Shuleni unaweza kuhitaji kuwa na vitu vya muhimu kama vile nguo za ndani, pedi au chochote ambacho huwa unatumia wakati wa siku zako katika begi lako. Kama haukujiandaa kwa ajili ya siku zako omba msaada kutoka kwa rafiki unaemuamini au mwalimu.


MYTHS, FEAR, SHAME


I am ashamed when I have my period.

Your period is nothing to be ashamed of! It means that your body is healthy and strong.

Did you know that in some places in the world, there are even period pride celebrations? Become a champion in your community and help your friends and neighbours to feel confident about their periods, too!

Ninaona aibu kila ninapokuwa katika siku zangu!

Hupaswi kuona aibu unapokuwa katika siku zako, ina maanisha mwili wako una afya na imara.

Unajua baadhi ya maeneo duniani kuna hadi sherehe za kusherehekea siku zako? Kuwa shujaa katika jamii yako na wasaidie marafiki na majirani kujisikia huru wakati wa siku zao pia.


I heard that a menstruating woman is impure, dirty, sick or even cursed. Is this true?

No! Periods are natural and normal for women. Menstrual fluid is just a harmless mixture of blood and tissue. This myth is often used as a reason to stop women, who are having their periods, from taking part in various social events, work, school or religious events. Talk to your teacher and your friends to plan how you can help to dispel these myths!

Nilisikia kuwa mwanamke aliyopo katika siku zake ni mchafu, mgonjwa au amelaaniwa, ni kweli?

Hapana! Hedhi ni kawaida na hali ya kiafya kwa wanawake. Maji maji ya hedhi ni mchanganyiko usiokuwa na madhara wa damu na tishu mbalimbali. Imani hii mara nyingi hutumika kuwazuia wanawake waliopo katika siku zao kushiriki katika matukio mbalimbali ya kijamii, kazi au shule au matukio ya kidini.

Ongea na mwalimu wako na marafiki na panga ni namna gani unaweza kuepukana na imani hizi.



Taking a bath/shower/washing the body during menstruation causes infection or infertility

This is false! Keeping clean during menstruation is necessary and prevents women from getting infections. However, avoid the practice of “douching” – or forcing water through the vagina to clean it – because it may make pelvic infections more likely.

Kuoga wakati wa hedhi kunasababisha maambukizi au kutokuzaa?

Hii sio kweli! Kuwa msafi wakati wa hedhi ni muhimu na inawaepusha wanawake na maambukizi. Ingawa, epuka kitendo cha kulazimisha maji ndani ya uke ili kuusafisha kwa sababu inaweza kusababisha maambukizi ya magonjwa katika via vya uzazi yawe rahisi zaidi kukupata.


Improper disposal of a pad / blood causes bad impacts on a girl or her community.

This is false! It is important to dispose of menstrual blood hygienically to keep yourself and your environment clean, but it will not cause any bad impacts on you. Burning or burying are safe and hygienic methods of disposing of used sanitary materials.

Kutupa pedi ovyo kuna madhara kwa msichana katika jamii yake?

Hii sio kweli! Ni muhimu kutupa salama pedi zako kujiweka wewe na mazingira ako safi, lakini haiwezi kusababisha madhara yoyote mabaya kwako. Kuchoma au kufukia pedi ni njia salama za kutunza pedi na vifaa vingine vinavyotumika wakati wa hedhi.


Does menstruation mean that a girl is ready to get married?

This is false. A girl’s body is still growing and developing after she has started menstruating. Getting married and having a baby before the age of 18 can lead to health problems for the mother and child.

Kupata hedhi kunamaanisha msichana yupo tayari kupata ujauzito?

Hii sio kweli! Mwili wa msichana bado unakua baada ya kupata hedhi kwa mara ya kwanza. Kuolewa na kupata mtoto kabla ya miaka 18 kunaweza kusababisha matatizo ya kiafya kwa mama na mtoto.


A woman should eat / sleep / stay separately from her family during menstruation.

There is no scientific basis for this belief. There is no reason for a woman or girl to eat or otherwise live separately while having her period.

Je, Mwanamke anapaswa kula na kulala mbali na familia yake wakati wa hedhi?

Hakuna msingi wa kisayansi kuhusiana na imani hii. Hakuna sababu kwa mwanamke au msichana kujitenga na familia wakati wa siku zake.


A girl should not attend religious functions or prepare food when menstruating.

There is no scientific basis for this belief.

Je, Msichana hapaswi kuhudhuria matukio ya kidini au kuandaa chakula wakati wa hedhi?

Hakuna msingi wa kisayansi kuhusiana na imani hii.


I heard that jumping, running, swimming, falling & lifting heavy things can affect

my period.

There is no scientific basis for this belief. Jumping, running, swimming, falling or lifting heavy objects during your period will not affect you. It will not cause you to have a heavier menstrual flow or increase the pain. In fact, exercise helps to regulate your blood flow and may help you to manage the pain and cramping.

Nilisikia kuwa kurukaruka, kukimbia, kuogelea, kunyanyua mizigo mizito kunaweza kuathiri mzunguko wangu.

Hakuna msingi wa kisayansi kuhusiana na imani hii.kurukaruka, kukimbia, kuogelea, kunyanyua mizigo mizito wakati wa siku zako hakuwezi kukupa madhar yoyote. Haitakusababishia kuwa na mtiririko mzito wa hedhi au kuongeza maumivu, badala yake mazoezi yanasaidia kurekebisha mzunguko wa damu yako na yanaweza kukusaidia kumudu maumivu wakati wa hedhi.




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